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The functional motivations of complement Thas-Clauses

THE FUNCTIONAL MOTIVATIONS OF COMPLEMENT THAS-CLAUSES

Juan Carlos Acuña Fariña

The aim of this paper is to reveal a few basic principles which constitute the essential logic of the English system of complementation. That-clauses will be the main focus of attention, although frequent reference will be made to the non-finite forms of complementation, especially to complementation by infinitives. I will draw on well-established research by Bresnan (1972), Riddle (1975), Rudanko (1984), Noonan (1985), Beukema and Verspoor (1990), and Givón (1993), in an attempt to integrate them all into a coherent whole. Such an integration will show up "the profoundly non-arbitrary nature of the coding relation between grammar and meaning" (Givón 1993: 2.24), or, in other words, the functional or even logical motivations of the form of clausal complements in English.

 

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Lineages of Modernism, or, how they brought the good news from Nashville to Oxford

LINEAGES OF MODERNISM, OR, HOW THEY BROUGHT THE GOOD NEWS FROM NASHVILLE TO OXFORD

Stan Smith

The history of literary modernism reflects the twentieth century's diasporas and displacements, the construction and reconstruction of national cultures and alliances. This essay examines the retrospective construction of the idea of "modernism" in the late 1950s and 1960s, in tandem with the Americanisation of English culture and the academic institutionalisation of the modernist impulse. Robert Graves and Laura Riding, in A Survey of Modernist Poetry (1927), first introduced the term to British culture, under the influence of the Nashville journal The Fugitive, edited by Ransom, Davidson and Tate between 1922 and 1925. The concept for a while took root in the Oxford coteries around W. H. Auden in the later 1920s, but thereafter went underground until the late 1930s, when it was again invoked to characterise the Auden generation and the configuration it made with that of Eliot, Pound, Joyce, Lawrence and Yeats. Auden's departure for the United States in 1939 heralds the end of an essentially mid-Atlantic Anglophone "modernism". Not until the 1960s, however, with the simultaneous privileging of the concept of "postmodernism", does the name become generally applied, in retrospect, to a movement already in process of being superseded. Both Graves and Auden by this time have become exemplary instances of the client relationship of British and Irish modernism to a specifically American discourse.

 

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Análisis crítico de la isocronía acentual en inglés

Análisis crítico de la isocronía acentual en inglés

María Heliodora Cuenca Villarín

En este artículo se lleva a cabo una revisión de la isocronía acentual en inglés por medio del análisis de muestras orales de prosa leída y habla espontánea. Con el objeto de determinar qué factores pueden ejercer una influencia en la duración del pie, se han aplicado correlaciones entre ésta y otras variables (posición prepausal/ no prepausal, número de segmentos en el pie y número de sílabas en el pie). El número de segmentos en el pie demostró ser el factor más significativo para la duración del pie en inglés en ambas muestras. A pesar de que la duración del pie mostró un incremento lineal con el número de sílabas en habla espontánea, llegó a apreciarse cierto efecto rítmico de isocronía acentual en prosa leída. Este comportamiento ambiguo quedó igualmente de manifiesto en las líneas de regresión trazadas. Nuestros resultados señalan la necesidad de adoptar otros criterios fonéticos y fonológicos, así como la importancia del estilo de habla o registro en la clasificación rítmica del inglés y demás lenguas en general.

 

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The End of History. or, is it? Circularity versus Progress in Caryl Phillips' "The Nature of Blood"

The End of History. or, is it? Circularity versus Progress in Caryl Phillips' "The Nature of Blood"

Angeles de la Concha Muñoz

In the wake of the revisionist thinking of the Enlightenment and its self-legitimising narratives, history is no longer accepted as linear time projected into a future ever open to gradual progress and freedom. This breakdown of linearity together with the acknowledgement of the discipline's textual fabric and discursive nature are accountable for a new, apocalyptic version of the ultimate stage of historical development termed the end of history, in which circularity and bleak repetition are now rampant.

 

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The Role of Semantic Relations in the Creation of Metonymic Mappings

The Role of Semantic Relations in the Creation of Metonymic Mappings

Olga Isabel Díez Velasco

In this paper I argue that the set of semantic relations put forward for the construction of propositional meaning by Ruiz de Mendoza (1996) can also be used to define the kinds of relationship that are established between the source and target domains of metonymies. Furthermore, we conted that it is possible to develop a typology of metonymic mappings which is based on this relational system and offer a programmatic classification of metonymic according to this criterion. Finally, we observe that the relationship between metonymic mappings and semantic relations is also useful in dealing effectively with polysemy. Thus, all the different senses of many words can be related by calling upon metonymies which exploit different relations.

 

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Review

REVIEW

 

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Unreliable narration and (Dis-)orientation in the postmodern neo-gothic novel: reflections on Patric

Unreliable narration and (Dis-)orientation in the postmodern neo-gothic novel: reflections on Patrick McGrath's "The Grotesque" (1989)

Heinz Antor

This article analyses the forms and functions of unreliable narration in a postmodern neogothic novel and thus tries to view the phenomenon of the unreliable narrator not merely from the point of view of the narratologist intending to devise a watertight descriptive definition of the technique and to place it consistently within a conceptual framwork. Rather, narratology and cultural studies are to be brought together here in an attempt at determining the cultural functions of a special form of narrative in a historical situation often described as plural, fragmented and devoid of a centre, i.e. one creating problems of orientation. Unreliable narration thus turns out to be a useful tool in the artistic process of coping with the postmodern condition.

 

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Reviews

Reviews

 

 

 
Cognition and Technologyen Education: Knowledge and Information-Language and Discourse

Cognition and Technologyen Education: Knowledge and Information-Language and Discourse

Robert de Beaugrande

Almost from the beginnings of education, technologies in a broad sense have been present, each with its own merits and drawbacks. Computer technology has bee hailed with great promise, but early results have been disappointing insofar as computer limitations have been added to human limitations. After differentiating between knowledge and information and tracing the history of technology in education as an information-cantered enterprise, this paper explores the prospects for real progress from hypertechnology and describes some model projects.

 

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Palindromes and Palimpsests: Strategies of Deliberate Self-contradiction in Postmodern British Ficti

 

 

 

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Language Processing, Linguistics and Constraints

 

 

 

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Post-Human: the cultural limits of 'Cyberpunk': (including an electronic conversation with Bruce Ste

POST-HUMAN: THE CULTURAL LIMITS OF 'CYBERPUNK': (INCLUDING AN ELECTRONIC CONVERSATION WITH BRUCE STERLING, AND HIS OWN SELECTED LIST OF CYBERPUNK READINGS)

Francisco Collado Rodríguez, Sergio A. Salvador Sebastián

This paper is itself a hybrid form, as hybridity is also one of its main concerns. The authors of this "article plus interview" are at pains to fight back the effects of the poststructuralist belief in the undecidability of meaning: they try to fix the meaning of SF genre cyberpunk. In order to accomplish this fixing task they point out the assumedly most remarkable features of the 1980s genre: its interest in literary renewal, its antihumanist stance, and its most interesting topoi, namely the gloomy landscape, the individual independent hero, and the transgression of the dichotomy animate/inanimate. Their analysis leads the authors to conclude the paradoxical hybridity of cyberpunk, by them temporarily located between some old humanist and modernist values and the opposing stance of postmodernity. These theoretical lucubrations are followed by an interview to cyberpunk author Bruce Sterling where he discusses about beginnings and ends of the literary SF movement and depicts the new type of cybernetic human that is sprouting from our technotronic Western civilization. The papers ends with a list of Sterling's suggested readings for anyone interested in the genre.

 

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Modernism in transition: the expatriate American Magazine in Europe between the Wars

MODERNISM IN TRANSITION: THE EXPATRIATE AMERICAN MAGAZINE IN EUROPE BETWEEN THE WARS

Craig Monk

The generation of expatriate Americans who spent the period between the world wars in Europe captured the imagination of critics and readers throughout the twentieth century. But while we know their works -and a great deal about their personal excesses- relatively little attention has been paid to the manner in which they facilitated their literary success. For many expatriate American writers, little magazines aided in printing material that commercial publishers would not touch, and the flexibility of these publications allowed the exchange of texts between Europe and the United States. Because modern writers were "self-canonizing", they actually assisted in the "writing" of modernism: we can see many of the threads of the modern canon in these little magazines. But the tension felt by little magazine editors -the tension between an avant-garde impulse to abandon tradition and a more conservative desire to reform art to include their visions- is also inherent in modernism. This essay underlines the importance of the little magazine to modern expatriate American writing, and seeks to further contextualize this writing within modernism itself.

 

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Some Reflexions on the Study of Idioms and Consequences for L2 Teaching

Some Reflexions on the Study of Idioms and Consequences for L2 Teaching

Marisa Díez Arroyo

This paper focuses on the importance of a particular manifestation of figurative language: the idiomatic phrase. Its purpose is to analyse fixed expressions, the difficulties they pose and the main preoccupations shown by theoreticians. At the same time, the study offers a comparison of idioms in L1 with the circumstances which surround L2 learning, together with an exploration of how the emerging differences affect L2 idiom teaching. The investigation has been conducted along the lines of an interdisciplinary methodology; thus, a conscious effort has been made to combine the linguistic and the psycholinguistic viewpoints, implemented with the analysis of Proficiency level coursebooks, in the hope that this helps us to gain a better understanding of the nature, processing and teachability/learnability of these phrases.

 

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Post-Baroque sublime? The Case of Peter Ackroyd

Post-Baroque sublime? The Case of Peter Ackroyd

Jean-Michel Ganteau

This paper focuses on Peter Ackroyd's English Music as a landmark in contemporary manifestations of the baroque tradition in British literature. It is based on contemporary approaches to the baroque as an aesthetic constant or strain -more than on a periodization-theory of the baroque. The demonstration is tripartite in structure. I first concentrate on the ingredients of what may be called a "baroque diction" (flux, hyperbole, overflowing of the frame, etc.). I then move on to the representation of artifice and the artifice of representation, by concentrating on the baroque topos of the world as a stage, tge examination of metaleptic ploys and their implications in terms of ontological or transcendent potentialities. The last part addresses the question of the baroque as a way to probe at the boundaries of traditional, phenomenonal realism, as a force meant to extend the province of traditional mimesis by replacing representation with presentation. I conclude with some reflections on the expressionist functions of the baroque as an avatar of romanticism.

 

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Present Day English Existential There-Constructions and Their Pragmatics. Towards an Integrated Cate

Present Day English Existential There-Constructions and Their Pragmatics. Towards an Integrated Categorisation

Ana Elina Martínez Insua

This paper presents the pragmatics of there-constructions (henceforth TCs) as its main object of analysis. It seeks to provide the labels for a possible classification of TCs according to their communicative roles in their contexts of occurrence. A basic distinction is made between prospective and retrospective functions of TCs, whose most basic function is seen as helping on the informational progress and development of the text. A total of ten labels are here proposed for as many pragmatic roles. Although it is not definitive or fully developed, but open to reformulation and further research, the typology proposed may be the basis for an effective methodology. It is hoped that it deals with an aspect of TCs that seems to have received less attention than deserved.

 

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The 200 Genres of the short story

The 200 Genres of the short story

Helmut Bonheim

This paper aims at questioning, among other things, Charles E. May's well-known "unified theory of the short story". As Bonheim sees it, May's theory would deserve to have added to it a unified theory of short story sub-genres, for the concept of a "unified theory" may suggest that varieties of story invite varieties of theory, and indeed, differences between types of story can be as revealing as their similarities. Detailed criticism presupposes the discovery of a great variety of sub-genres, together with a great variety of search-engines that might allow the critic to unearth relevant differentiations. An all-embracing theory of subgenres will have, in addition to an explanatory power, an exploratory power as well, and will make it possible for the critic, not only to assign a story to a sub-category or subgenre, but also to a category such as analytic vs. synthetic, thus taking into consideration technique as well as content. On the assumption that the genres have in fact emerged by chance rather tahn through scholarly analysis, students taling part in a University of Cologne seminar were asked to write down half a dozen short story types that they had not seen labelled. The feedback proved to be quite overwhelming, for the resulting master list included well over 200 entries, which would be eventually reduced to the round number of 200. These short story types would in turn be arranged in alphabetical order and carefully analysed and considered in order to reach some final and revealing hypotheses, which proved to be much more revealing than the original list itself.

 

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The effect of language Proficiency on Communication Strategy Use: a case study of Galician Learners

The effect of language Proficiency on Communication Strategy Use: a case study of Galician Learners of English

Ana María Fernández Dobao

This paper presents an investigation carried out in order to study the effect that language proficiency has on the use that Galician learners of English as a foreign language make of communication strategies (CS). The results obtained suggest that quantitative measures of CS instances alone cannot provide a fair picture of the use that language learners make of these devices. In analyzing CS use it is necessary to bear in mind that, in the accomplishment of the apparently same communicative tasks, different subjects set different communicative goals which directly influence their use of these strategies. On account of this, in the present study frequency and choice of CS use in a given set of tasks is related to the amount and lexical complexity of the content communicated. In this way, evidence is obtained that more proficient students use CS less frequently than lower level ones and that, in terms of CS choice, more advanced students make more frequent use of paragraph strategies, rather than avoidance or conscious transfer strategies, then less advanced learners.

 

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Genre, Auteur and Identity in Contemporary Hollywood Cinema: Clint Eastwood's White Hunter, Black He

 

 

 

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Grammatical Conceptualization as a Poetic Strategy in EE Cummings's yes is a pleasant country

 

 

 

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They lived happily ever after: ending contemporary romantic comedy

THEY LIVED HAPPILY EVER AFTER: ENDING CONTEMPORARY ROMANTIC COMEDY

Celestino Deleyto Alcalá

The ideology of romantic comedies has often been located in their attitude to the traditional happy ending: an unproblematic happy ending makes for a film that supports dominant discourses; a problematised one suggests attempts to transgress narrative and cultural conventions. In this essay, I attempt to escape from this inflexible binary logic and propose an analysis of the endings of contemporary romantic comedy which explores the texts' incorporation of cultural transformations and, more specifically, how the strategies of containment and closure negotiate new attitudes in the realm of romantic and sexual relationships in contemporary US American society. As part of a broader research on contemporary developments in romantic comedy, I sketch here five aspects of romantic relationships in which the endings of recent examples of the genre show awareness of social developments: the lonely romantic hero/-ine, the uneasiness about the durability of the couple, the nostalgia for a more innocent past, the impact of changing gender roles both socially and sexually, and the visibility of different gender permutations in intimate relationships.

 

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Puppets, actors and directore: Edward Gordon Craig

PUPPETS, ACTORS AND DIRECTORE: EDWARD GORDON CRAIG

Olga Taxidou

This essay reads the work of Edward Gordon Craig within the tradition of the European theatrical avant-garde. Though he is hailed as one of the "prophets" of twentieth-century theatre, Craig and his overall project are almost never read within their historical and ideological context. Rather than viewing his work as an exception within the mainly literary experiments in Anglophone modernist theatre, this essay proposes a reading that finds parallels between Craig and his European contemporaries. Craig's view of the "art of the theatre" as a distinct discursive practice and not as an extension of literature, places him alongside figures like Reinhardt, Stanislavsky, Meyerhold and Artaud. In particular, this essay reads the work of Meyerhold against that of Craig. It attempts to treat the two directors/ visionaries as "test-cases", as they express similar aesthetic preoccupations on opposite extremes of the political spectrum (Meyerhold was a "utopian" Marxist and Craig flirted with fascism). Both men admired each other's work. Craig's aphoristic writings on the role of the actor are read in conjuction with Kleist's romantic essay on marionettes. This essay was first published in English by Craig in his journal The Mask (1909-1929), which also partakes in the avant-garde tradition of the manifesto. Rather than being a unique and solitary figure on an otherwise literary landscape, Craig is seen as forming part of the diverse and revolutionary spirit that was the European avant-garde in the early decades of this century.

 

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1984: Una interpretación sociolingüística

1984: Una interpretación sociolingüística

Paula López Rúa

El presente artículo analiza la utopía lingüística propuesta por Orwell en la obra Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), así como las conexiones que se establecen entre las condiciones lingüísticas y las circunstancias políticas, sociales y psicológicas descritas en la novela. Tras una introducción en la que se expone el marco sociopolítico en donde se encuadra la situación lingüística que se vive en la obra, el estudio se centra en el análisis comparativo de las dos lenguas utilizadas, el Oldspeak y el Newspeak, teniendo en cuenta sus características más relevantes, su estatus, el tipo de hablantes que las utilizan, sus variedades y sus funciones respectivas. El resultado de dicho análisis pone en evidencia que ambas lenguas (Oldspeak y Newspeak) son instrumentos de incalculable valor para manipular y esclavizar social, política y psicológicamente a sus hablantes; en otras palabras, el Newspeak representa simplemente un calculado paso adelante en el proceso iniciado y aún continuado por el Oldspeak. De este modo, el auténtico mérito del Oldspeak no es otro que el de realizar la misma función de manera tan sutil que, en un primer momento, el lector sólo es consciente de la evidente manipulación ejercida a través del Newspeak. A la luz del análisis efectuado, el artículo concluye con una reflexión sobre hasta qué punto sería factible la transferencia al mundo real de la ficción lingüística recreada por el autor.

 

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Caribbean women Poets -Disarming Tradition

Caribbean women Poets -Disarming Tradition

Christine Harris

This article sets out to explore the way in which women writers of Caribbean origin express various concerns relating to their heritage through poetry which encompasses not only their position as women seen from a feminist perspective but also from historical and contemporary positions in contrasting societies. It argues that an overall need to find an identity linked to the past is paramount for establishing a position for women in the future, and that the poetry achieves this through breaking with the traditional notions of women and poets. The article focuses particularly on the work by Grace Nichols and Lorna Goodison.

 

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Extended Thematic Progression

Extended Thematic Progression

Pablo Ortega Gil

In recent years, linguistics has increasingly focused its interest on the realm of texts, trying to find in them links of a similar nature to those working in sentences. An important contribution in this respect was that of Danes (1974), who used the term "Thematic progression" to refer to the "choice and ordering of utterance themes" in a given passage. However, in my opinion, thematic progression only indicates the connections between the different textual segments without clarifying their nature. This article wishes to provide thematic progression with the necessary means to identity the relations established in a text, and for that purpose I will use both its cohesive resources (Halliday and Hasan 1976) and its semantic relations (Alcaraz 1982). The network we obtain is shown graphically with the help of an extended notation system.

 

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