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Volume 16

THAT-CLAUSES IN NP

Juan Carlos Acuña Fariña

The aim of this paper is to discuss aspects of the grammar of the (non-relative) that-clauses which follow head nouns. Specifically, two aspects will be discussed here. The first has to do with the different types of expansions of head nouns wich can appear under the form of (non-relative) that- clauses. The second concerns the nature of the evidence for positing distinct types of that-clauses in NP structure. In essence, this paper focuses on the complement/modifier divide, as this applies to that-clauses in NP. Central to this discussion will be our attempt to sustain the thesis that that-clause complements to nouns do not exist.

 

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IRONY AND THE OTHER OFF RECORD STRATEGIES WITHIN POLITENESS THEORY

Laura Alba Juez

The present paper is part of a more complete study of the phenomenon of verbal irony within the framework of Politeness theory as presented by Brown and Levinson in their book Politeness: Some Universals in Language Use (1987, first published 1978). The possibility of combining an off record strategy such as irony with on record strategies has already been considered (Alba Juez, 1994a). In the present paper some examples are presented which illustrate the combination of verbal irony with the other off record strategies set out in the theory by Brown and Levinson. It is taken for granted that the reader is familiar with Politeness Theory, and hence many concepts are not explained or defined herein.

 

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Revising South African History: Multiple Perspectives  in the Novels of Nadine Gordimer

Rosalía Baena Molina

Narrative perspective is a particularly relevant prism through which the relations between literature and history can be viewed. Nadine Gordimer’s novels have often been analyzed as historical artifacts that give insight on South African historical situations, and the players in the drama. This paper suggests that a narratological study of point of view and the examination of diverse perspectives in the different novels sheds light on an understanding of the conflicts enacted in her fiction. The flexibility in her manipulation of point of view is observed in particular in four novels: A Guest of Honour (1971), The Conservationist (1974), Burger’s Daughter (1979), and My Son’s Story (1991). Her novels thus pose in acute form the question of whose story will be told and who will tell it. The multiplicity of voices and the corresponding shifts in focalization evident in her novels provide ways to explore the nature of both the creative act and the connection between the personal and the political.

 

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REFLEXIVE NARRATIVE IN LOLITA, BY VLADIMIR NABOKOV

Asunción Barreras Gómez

What Nabokov's narrators produce is not a faithful record of the past but an imaginative invention, mediated by their point of view, their metafictional consciousness and their active manipulation of the story. There is, then, a difficulty in portraying reality, because any point of view on reality is a subjective one, in which memory and imagination are mixed. Nabokov recognizes that he cannot show reality in a simple form. An analysis of the narration in Lolita shows a more problematic relationship between fiction and reality than the one realist fiction allows the reader to acknowledge.

 

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The Poetry of Judith Wright: Inventing Australia, Inventing the self.

Nela Bureu

The poetry of Judith Arundel Wright, a contemporary Australian artist born in Armidale, New South Wales in 1915, offers us an interesting poetic reading of Australia's past and a deep meditation on the meaning and value of life.

 

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IDENTIDAD Y DIFERENCIA EN THE CLONING OF JOANNA MAY, DE FAY WELDON

Silvia Caporale Bizzini

The aim of this paper is to carry out a reading of Fay Weldon's novel The Cloning of Joanna May. This work is the ironic answer Weldon gives to a culture that uses the negation of difference as a means to contain the feminine subject within the limits of the normative identity that the Cartesian ontology has assigned to women. In The Cloning of Joanna May, the discourse on gender is closely related to the discourse on the construction of identity. Weldon not only proposes a revision of the histories of women that belong to different social classes and educational backgrounds: she relates these histories to issues that explore the relation which exists between the feminine identity and social structures.

 

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THE TEACHING OF GRAMMAR

María Rosario Cuesta Cuesta

The purpose of this paper is to examine a number of theoretical principles concerning the teaching of English grammar in EFL contexts. Section One begins with an examination of the strengths and drawbacks of product and process approaches, arguing that there is no single right methodology for the teaching of grammar and advocating a variable balance between  product and process perspectives. Section Two gives recognition to the role of individual differences in learning style. Section Three focuses on the relationship between instruction and second language learning, suggesting that learners require formal instruction and informal exposure and that the two together work better than either on its own. Finally, Section Four considers the role of consciousness-raising in the acquisition of grammatical structure. It examines the question of whether second language learning is conscious or unconscious. While the relevance of unconscious processes should not be ignored, a serious reassessment of the notion of consciousness and its role in language learning is necessary.

 

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The Licensing of Parasitic Gaps

María del Pilar García Mayo

One of the syntactic characteristics attributed to parasitic gaps in the literature is that they require the presence of an S-S variable. This licensing variable must not c-command the parasitic gap. In this paper I argue that an opera­tor/variable pair is not the only essential environment allowing the licensing of parasitic gaps in Spanish at S-S contrary to what happens in English where only variables license these constructions. This paper adopts the theo­retical assumptions of Government and Binding theory.

 

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The referential mania of "Signs and Symbols": Reading Nabokov’s short story

Álvaro Garrido Moreno

Nabokov's parody has been most influential to many postmodern writers of fiction. The criticism of his work as well as his own autobiographical elucidations show an intimate dependence on a modernist assumption that there is a transcendental founding meaning in literature and existence which should be suggested by the creator and unveiled by the reader. This is apparently the impression that tautens his beautiful tale "Signs and Symbols." Nevertheless, a close reading —playing with some devices borrowed from deconstructive criticism— will emphasize the existence of intimate contradictions in the writing of that assumption. This paper also tries to illustate the exciting effects of deconstructive devices as well as my inability to accomplish such a reading.

 

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Modals and modality in English

Carlos Inchaurralde Besga

Modality as a linguistic notion has a clear expression in English through the use of different modal verbs. In this respect, we can approach this fact from both a diachronic and a synchronic perspective. In the development of modals in time, it is interesting to consider Bernd Heine's account, for whom modals' development should be considered within a process of grammaticalization and desemantization of full verbs, fully explainable in cognitive terms. From a synchronic point of view, modality as is expressed by English modals should be viewed in connection with tense and aspect. A convenient way of visualizing the interplay that takes place is the use of Minkowsky's space-time cones, which are presented here with examples illustrating the usefulness of this model for the description of these grammatical notions in an integrated manner.

 

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Desplazamientos léxico-semánticos y efectos macroestructurales en la traducción española de The Alexandria Quartet: topología conceptual

Jesús M. Sánchez García

The article is part of a research effort which develops a combined functional lexically-oriented methodology within Descriptive Translation Studies designed to examine lexico-semantic and macrostructural, i.e. thematic, shifts in translated narrative texts such as the Spanish translation of Lawrence Durrell's The Alexandria Quartet to which the methodology has been applied with reference to the theme of love. It explores the role that specifying the lexico-conceptual domains of the units in lexico-semantic shifts play in interpreting transemes (textual units in a translational relation) as well as in obtaining a general conceptual structure for the text analysed which may ultimately lead to a statement on the transemic macrostructure for a given topic. Besides, it provides some specific results as to the love-related transemic macrostructure for The Quartet and its Spanish translation, which we have been able to derive by applying our methodology.

 

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REVIEWS:

Nancy Comley y Robert Scholes, Hemingway's Genders (Beatriz Penas)

Susana Onega, ed., Telling Histories (María del Mar Asensio)

Salman Rushdie, The Moor's Last Sigh (José Angel García)

 

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