logo   logo
s
  • English
  • Castellano
   
Back Issues Home
Journal Home
Search Back Issues

 

 

 

 

  header
     
 
Volume 15

Homenaje a Carmen Olivares: Presentation

En el curso académico 1992-93 el Departamento de Filología Inglesa y Alemana celebró el 25 aniversario de la concesión de la primera cátedra de Filología Inglesa en la Universidad de Zaragoza, que fue ocupada por la Dra. Doireann MacDermott. Con ella  se daba el primer paso para el asentamiento definitivo  de los estudios de Filología Inglesa en nuestra Universidad. Unos meses más tarde era contratada como Profesora Ayudante Carmen Olivares Rivera. Otros profesores fueron llegando después, pero sólo ella eligió quedarse todos estos años, uniendo su carrera universitaria al desarrollo del propio Departamento, de tal manera que hoy en día sería imposible separarlos.

Por esta razón, el Consejo de Departamento decidió unánimemente dedicarle, como pequeño homenaje a sus veinticinco años de dedicación, este número especial de nuestra revista, Miscelánea, que ella contribuyó a fundar. Con él queremos reconocer y agradecer la abnegada dedicación y la infatigable determinación con que la Dra. Carmen Olivares ha ido emprendidendo a lo largo de estos años innumerables tareas universitarias que no suelen reflejarse en el curriculum vitae, pero que perviven grabadas indeleblemente en la memoria de todos sus compañeros. 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

Hlenka regained: Irony and ambiguity in THE NARRATOR OF Woody Allen's Another Woman

María del Mar Asensio Aróstegui

When Another Woman begins, its character-narrator Marion affirms that her life is successful and complete. Yet, as the film progresses, Marion's self-assurance is shown to be a delusion, a self-imposed mask which she has adopted in order to achieve personal, social and professional fulfilment. What I propose in this article is a narratological approach to the film that will show how it is precisely through the technique of voice-over narration, on the one hand, and through the narrator's clever use of irony and ambiguity —she spreads inconsistent and incomplete clues all through the film, transforms the process of narration itself into a source of suspense and emotion, consistently breaks the coherent temporal order of events, and constantly questions and blurs the limits between fiction and reality—, on the other, that this reversal is achieved.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

DOUBLES, DECEIT, AND REFLEXIVE NARRATIVE IN TWO NOVELS BY VLADIMIR NABOKOV

María Asunción Barreras Gómez

Nabokov's novels show that imagination creates its own reality by giving order and meaning to a subject. They do not reflect reality but instead they express their own individual reality. The motif of the Doppelgänger or double is one of the main devices used by Nabokov. It allows the novelist to parody consciously and symmetrically the actions of the characters. It is a recurring design by which the novel refers to itself. The heroes of both Despair and Lolita describe their relationship with their double and his murder. However, the reader is never sure whether the story of the double is true or whether the doubles are in fact just part of the protagonists' imagination. The reader has to decide whether the story is true or not. This is a metafictional feature. The reader creates the novel as well, when he decides what to believe. Both novels remind the reader that fiction is an illusion, and not the reality it may seem.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo 

 

DISCURSIVE CONFLICT IN 'BENITO CERENO': NOBLE SAVAGE VERSUS WILD MAN

Jesús Benito Sánchez

This article departs from the classical controversy on whether Melville's auythoritative point of view in "Benito Cereno" can be discerned. Taking for granted the impossibility to ascertain Melville's position with regards to slavery, this article proposes to analyze Delano's rendering of the story. This analysis uncovers the discursive conflict generated by the existence of two contradictory images of the black man —as Noble Savage and as Wild Man— deployed by Delano.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

EL NARRADOR DE PEARL A LA LUZ DE LA CONSOLATIO PHILOSOPHIAE

Antonio Bravo

The Middle English poem Peal can be read as an instance of the literary genre known as the consolatio, and belonging therefore to the classical tradition of poems which consist in a moralizing dialogue intended to console and instruct the narrator, a tradition which follows the model of Boethius' Consolatio Philosophiae. In both works the instruction derived from moral teaching is the sole remedy and consolation for the narrator, and, consequently, for the readers.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

THE THREE HOSTS OF DOOMSDAY IN CELTIC AND OLD ENGLISH

Andrew Breeze

Late Old English homiletic literature contains a characteristic motif, that it is better to feel shame for one's sins before a confessor in this life, than to feel shame before the hosts of heaven, earth, and hell on the day of Judgment. This theme is discussed in M. R. Gooden, "An Old English Penitential Motif," Anglo-Saxon England 11 (1973): 221-39, where it is described as "peculiarly Anglo-Saxon." Yet this view is unfounded. The reference to the three hosts of Doomsday, which occurs in Hiberno-Latin writings known to have circulated in Germany and Austria in the eighth century, as well as in later writings in Irish and Welsh, is almost certainly of Irish origin. in its allusion to these hosts, therefore, the penitential motif discussed by Professor Godden, far from being "peculiarly Anglo-Saxon," shows Celtic influence.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

WEIGHING DELIGHT AND DOLE IN CANADIAN POETRY

Nela Bureu Ramos

The analysis of the relationship between man and nature in Canadian poetry written in English shows that Canadian artists have traditionally been both attracted and repelled by the vastness and savage beauty of the Canadian landscape and, consequently, have described their land as both heaven and hell, a matrix of life and a source of terror and death.

This article highlights this dialectic of opposites by opening an angle on the work of well-known Canadian writers such as the Confederation poets, who are treated as a group with similar concerns and ways of writing, Edwin John Pratt (1882-1964), and John Newlove (1938-).

All of them have incorporated the tension inherent to the Canadian experience to their poetry though they have articulated it in a different way as each age has its own rendering of the same idea.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

INSULATION VS. DISSOLUTION? AN INTERVIEW WITH ERIC KRAFT

Francisco Collado

The New York novelist Eric Kraft tells in this interview about his main literary sources (Nabokov, Barth), and comments on some of the aspects that make his fiction a very interesting combination of metafictional writing and accurate realism. Aspects such as the notion of a postmodern realism, insulation vs. fuzziness, quantum mechanics and chaos theory, or the role of the reader combine with other comments on specific contemporary issues such as the value of electronic books or the necessity to improve readership among young people.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

The Warring Voices of the Mother: Maxine Hong Kingston's Tale of the Mother-Daughter Story

Angeles de la Concha

Postmodern feminist theories of identity have warned against the use of general categories of gender in favour of more complexly structured conceptions in which gender is but one relevant strand among others such as class, ethnicity or race.

Maxine Hong Kingston's The Woman Warrior is a beautiful version of the daughter's growth away from the omnipotent and powerless mother within the patriarchal family, a well known female plot, or subplot, in Western literature. This paper explores the ambivalence of the mother's voice carrying the fantasies and deceptions of feminine power, autonomy and authority. The powerfully compelling female images the mother builds through her story-telling are eventually contradicted either by the story itself or the bare facts of life, revealing the mother's uneasy collusion with patriarchy while voicing ways of overcoming it.

I wish to point out how the novel shows that for all the nuances and idiosyncracies allowed by the Chinese familiar background and the childhood in a working class immigrant milieu, gender traits socially constructed in a relational matrix loom the largest in the constitution of the girl's subjectivity.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

FOREIGN LANGUAGE PERFORMANCE AND LEARNERS' INTUITIONS

Josep M. Cots

The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship existing between the oral performance of a subject in a "gatekeeping" encounter such as an office appointment with a teacher and his/her definition of the situation and of the role that language plays in it. In a real context of language use, the outcome is connected with the speakers' fulfillment of the goal with which they approached the encounter, a fulfillment which does not exclusively depend on the nature of the object being negotiated but also on how it is negotiated.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

Imaginary Homelands Revisited in the Novels of Kazuo Ishiguro 

Rocío G. Davis

Taking as a point of departure Salman Rushdie’s essay “Imaginary Homelands,” this paper will analyze the three novels of Japanese-born English writer Kazuo Ishiguro in order to demonstrate how the peculiarities of memory and a cross-cultural imagination work to create novels in which Japan and the Japanese culture, either physically or subliminally, plays a vital role. Each novel is analyzed separately to reveal the cross-cultural elements, as well as how aspects of one culture shed light on another. To perceive parallels and articulate similarities in differences is perhaps the specific territory of the between-world writer. Kazuo Ishiguro’s principal commitment in his novels is to observe interaction of the past and present, of East and West, and capture the evocative texture of memory.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

FOCALISATION IN ALFRED HITCHCOCK'S THE BIRDS

Celestino Deleyto

This essay is an attempt to clarify several points regarding the concept of focalisation as used by theorists of fiction and film. Two theoretical points are made in the introduction: firstly, focalisation must be theorised as both perception and manipulation/selection of visual information; secondly, in its application to the analysis of film narratives, Mieke Bal's distinction between internal and external focalisation is to be favoured in film analyses against Seymour Chatman's introduction of the concepts of filter and slant, as the most accurate way to account theoretically for the multiplicity of points of view in the texts and the relationships between them. However, the concepts of external and internal focalisation are slightly changed with respect to Bal's and Rimmon-Kenan's theoretical discussions of them. In the subsequent analysis of focalisation in The Birds, I explore the narrative position of the birds and their relationship with the film's heroine, Melanie Daniels (Tippi Hedren) in terms of omniscience and subjectivity. Finally, a consideration of the complex relationships between internal and external focalisation in the text leads to an overall interpretation of the film as a modern fantasy characterised by the dominance of a mysterious but powerful female subjectivity.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

METHODOLOGICAL UNDERPINNINGS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A FUNCTIONAL LEXICOLOGICAL MODEL

Pamela Faber                                                                                     Ricardo Mairal

Although recent work in theoretical linguistics has stressed the important role of the lexicon within linguistic theory, its description is still too deeply-seated in theory internal qualifications. Then, it is the aim of this paper to present the theoretical foundations of a Lexicon/Dictionary which can account for speakers' actual lexical knowledge. These theoretical foundations have been gathered under the rubric of Functional Lexicology.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

TAKING RISKS: A READING OF OSCAR WILDE'S THE PICTURE OF DORIAN GRAY

Isabel Fraile

The aim of this paper is to analyse Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray from a postmodernist standpoint. By drawing on a variety of critical perspectives, such as psychoanalysis, deconstruction, and reader-response criticism, it tries to suggest an alternative reading in which the picture that gives the novel its title is regarded not as a "work of art," but rather as a text in which many conflictive meanings play and interact with one another. The relationships between the main characters, Dorian, Henry, and Basil, are interpreted as illuminating in turn those between the text, the author, and the reader / literary critic. In this light, The Picture of Dorian Gray finally emerges as a metaphor for the very act of reading.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

THE BATTLE OF MALDON Y ST EDMUND: UNA APROXIMACION PRAGMATICA DESDE LA TEORIA DE LA CORTESIA LINGÜISTICA

Pilar Garcés Conejos                                                        Julia Fernández Cuesta

This paper analyses, from the standpoint of the literary pragmatics, and more specifically from linguistic politeness theory, two Old English texts: the heroic poem The Battle of Maldon and Aelfric's prose narrative of King Edmund's life. The aim is double: first, to show that this type of linguistic analysis is adequate for the study of texts from other historical periods, since the pragmatical focus on the text opens up a new interpretive and evaluative dimension. Second, to validate the applicability of politeness theory as an analytical framework in texts and contexts where it has not been commonly applied.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

ENUNCIACION, FICCION Y NIVELES SEMIOTICOS EN EL TEXTO NARRATIVO

José Angel García Landa

This paper examines some conceptual connections between the areas of narratology and pragmalinguistics, with a specific focus on the enunciative peculiarities of fictional discourse. A descriptive model for semiotic analysis is proposed, taking into account the complex and stratified structure of narrative fiction and the difference between levels of enunciation and levels of fictionality.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

Complex event nominals in english and spanish: a comparative approach

María del Pilar García Mayo

Grimshaw (1990) argues that only nouns that refer to what she calls complex events —nouns that have an internal aspectual analysis— have argument structure. She also proposes (following Emonds (1985)) that nouns have no direct theta-marking capacity. Thus, argument-taking nouns cannot directly accept arguments because they are defective theta markers; they will only take arguments when they combine with a preposition. This paper analyzes the behavior of complex event nominals in English and Spanish as well as the behavior of CPs within NPs and matters of control in infinitival purpose clauses. We suggest that the relationship between event control and a-structure is not as simple as one could infer from Grimshaw's account of the phenomenon.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

I don't care what you meant: I heard what you said

Leo Hickey

In recent work on interpersonal communication, it is broadly assumed that a sincere Hearer attempts to cooperate with a Speaker in order to interpret the semantic and pragmatic import of what the latter says. However, it sometimes suits the Hearer's purposes better to ignore the Speaker's intentions and seek some other interpretation, so long as it is somehow justified by the literal meaning of the utterance itself. It is suggested that this kind of hostile or uncooperative behaviour is analogical to the Hearer's part to lying on the Speaker's, although its motivation may not always be malicious or negative.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

SALEEM'S HISTORICAL DISCOURSE IN MIDNIGHT'S CHILDREN

Luis de Juan Hatchard

It has been the aim of this paper to analyze Midnight's Children with regard to the evolution undergone by history writing, and specially with the position it actually holds. This has been done with a view to discovering that much of postmodernist fiction, among which we must include Rushdie's novel, is dealing with similar issues to those which have become the subject of the New Historicism.

The first half deals with the narrator's ambivalent position: his oscillation between internal and external narrator serves to underline the uncertainty and relativity of the task he has undertaken. By underlining the discursive nature of history, and by consciously choosing an impossible task —the struggle towards objectivity and reliability— Saleem manages further to blur the frontier that differentiates fiction from history.

The second half deals with Saleem's position both as a character and narrator. Saleem's fascination with the unknown allows him to write from new angles, and therefore to offer different perspectives, and points of view. this concern with history (writing) must be understood as an attempt to suggest multiplicity, heterogeneity, and plurality. This task is carried out by continually stressing Saleem's position as a self-conscious writer, and by commenting on the linguistic nature of his discourse.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

GOD, SHE IS BEAUTIFUL: THE DISTURBING REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN HANNAH AND HER SISTERS

Hilaria Loyo

This paper discusses the ideological scope of Woody Allen's Hannah and Her Sisters (1986) in relation to gender and sexual difference within American postmodernism —the cultural phenomenon in which Woody Allen has been inscribed. The analysis uses a theoretical framework derived from feminist film theory and focuses mainly on visual representation and its enunciative process. More particularly, the analysis centres on the representation of women within the film as well as on its intertextual aspects, that is, its parodic allusions and references to other films, generic influence, and stardom. The final aim is to account for the unresolved ambivalence manifested in the representation of women in this film.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

A FUNCTIONAL-SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS OF VISUAL AIDS IN SCIENTIFIC DISCOURSE

María José Luzón Marco

This paper attempts to explore one of the aspects of scientific communication: visual aids. The study of non-linguistic representations is best approached from semiotics, which permits the description of visual aids as conventional tools of scientific research and expression. The notion of iconicity proposed by Eco (1979) is the basic concept for this analysis of visuals used in scientific discourse. The vague idea of similarity is discarded and iconic signs are defined as the result of a transformation process by means of which a content type is projected into a given expression continuum.

This paper aims at a functional and formal analysis of visuals: they are conventional informative iconic signs which stand in a narrow relationship to the linguistic message of the scientific text and which can be categorized accroding to their mode of production. As a conclusion, the paper reveals the relevant role of visuals in the representation of a message, since these devices conform to two basic principles of scientific discourse: economy and precision.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

Funciones pragmaticas marcadas y no marcadas

Javier Martín Arista

This paper puts forward a typology of pragmatic functions which differs in some basic respects from the ones proposed so far in the Functional Grammar literature by Watters (1979), Dik et al (1981), de Jong (1981) and Dik (1989). In the first place, it is argued that a distinction between unmarked and marked pragmatic functions contributes to the typological adequacy of the theory. As regards intra-clausal pragmatic functions, four possible criteria of markedness are revised: lexical category, type of information, assignment of syntactic function and the order of clause constituents. The pragmatically-governed syntactic alignment of clause constituents that includes the syntax-phonology mapping is selected as the most accurate criterion for pragmatic function markedness. With reference to extra-clausal pragmatic functions, the marked status of the topic as theme and of the tail as focus are discussed.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

WILLIAM GOLDING'S RITES OF PASSAGE:  A CASE OF TRANSTEXTUALITY

Marita Nadal Blasco

More or less consciously, all authors rewrite the work of their predecessors, since it is impossible to escape the influence of previous writings. Golding's Rites of Passage uses and abuses the conventions of earlier works very overtly, flaunting its condition of postmodern literary artifact. This paper shows how Rites of Passage makes use of all the five types of transtextual relationships that Genette defines in Palimpsestes —intertextuality, paratextuality, metatextuality, hypertextuality and archtextuality— through which this novel foregrounds its postmodernist flavour. Thus, while noting the complex transtextuality of Rites of Passage, we also point out its historiographic/metafictional character, since both features are closely related.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

AN INTERVIEW WITH PROFESSOR NORMAN BLAKE, CO-EDITOR OF THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

María Pilar Navarro

In this interview professor Norman Blake, co-editor of the Cambridge History of the English Language and editor of the second volume, answers a number of questions connected with the publication of the work and the teaching of the history of the language inside and outside Great Britain, in non-English speaking countries such as Spain.

This masterpiece was meant to gather the writings of the most authorized experts on the various topics, to provide a basic starting point to researchers, both concerning knowledge and bibliography, and also to change the attitude of the teachers of English towards the subject. Professor Blake also informs of how responsibilities were assigned to the participants and about the careful process followed by the editorial team in order to produce such an outstanding work.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

APROXIMACION SINTACTICA A LOS TERMINOS DE POLARIDAD NEGATIVA EN INGLES

Ana I. Ojea

Negative Polarity items are those lexical elements and expressions which are only licensed in non-assertive contexts (i.e. any, ever, in years, lift a finger...). The purpose of this paper is to explore the structural conditions which regulate their appearance in the sentence.

After reviewing some of the proposals on the issue made under the generativist approach, we focus on the role played by the so-called functional categories, in particular the negation, the complementizers or subordinators, and certain quantifiers and degree words. We conclude that Negative Polarity items must be expanded under the categorial command of a non-assertive constituent, and that this structural relationship has to be mediated by one functional category.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

"THE EBONY TOWER": TEXT AND INTERTEXTS

Susana Onega

Fowles's insistence in "A Personal Note" and elsewhere that the four short stories that make up The Ebony Tower collection were variations both on the themes and on the narrative methods employed in his previous novels interestingly contradicts the reaction of Fowles's own editor and of the first professional reviewers, who were unable to see any kind of connexion among them. My purpose is to analyse the short story that gives the whole collection its title, "The Ebony Tower," with a view to establishing the intratextual form and meaning of the short story proper and its intertextual connexions with Fowles's avowed major sources: medieval romance and The Magus.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

WENDY COPE'S USE OF PARODY IN MAKING COCOA FOR KINGSLEY AMIS

Marta Pérez Novales

Making Cocoa for Kingsley Amis, an English best-seller of the late 1980s, established Cope's reputation as a parodist of canonical poetic styles. Yet, in some ways, her writing is subservient to the canon: her style is heavily indebted to the poetics of the Movement, and her seeming obsession with the writing of "the forefathers" betrays a desire to gain a place in the masculine literary establishment. However, Wendy Cope's attitude to poetic tradition is not without ambivalence. This article analyses Cope's use of postmodernist pastiche, and discusses the possible implications of her style from a feminist point of view.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

NARRATIVE EMBEDDINGS IN FLANN O'BRIEN'S AT SWIM-TWO-BIRDS

Constanza del Río

This paper examines one narrative aspect of Flann O'Brien's novel At Swim-Two-Birds (1939): the complex structure of narrative embeddings that has been built in the text. The underlying intention is to dismantle this structure in order to show the unstable and undecidable nature of a novel which seems to be as much interested in establishing a hierarchy and delimiting spaces and voices as in democratically erasing differences and bringing together what has already been set apart.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

LEWIS GRASSIC GIBBON AND HISTORY: THE SHAMELESS STONE OF SISYPHUS

Rubén Valdés Miyares

This article is a cultural study of the writer James Leslie Mitchell / Lewis Grassic Gibbon in his historical context, the early 1930s in Scotland. It analyses especially his novels The Thirteenth Disciple, Spartacues and A Scots Quair, and their critique of the workings of ideology, its relation to faith in humanity, and its distortion of the radicalism necessary to change a sick world. A crucial image in his materialist approach to culture and politics bears a significant resemblance to the existentialist angst in Camus's Mythe de Sisyphe: it is the rock of creative faith that falls back on violent ideology every time a courageous Sisyphus tops a hill of History.

 

Full Text / Texto Completo

 

'Standard English' as a metaphor of language in the English language education debate 

Ignacio Vázquez Orta

This paper investigates a specific area of language about language in the English language education debate. It has been argued by Reddy (1979) that English metalanguage is dominated and structured by one major metaphorical framework, the conduit metaphor. In opposition to this frame is the negotiative metaphor, an alternative framework of generative metaphor (Schön, in Ortony, ed., 1979). Within these frameworks, key terms in the debate are seen to be metaphorical labels through which partial perspectives are expressed.

The chosen context of the English language education debate is one in which metalanguage has significant consequences for the linguistic and social outlook of future generations.

Although the main focus here is going to be on the metalinguistic metaphor rather than on the context, this study tries to complement existing work in this area of "language in language education" (e.g. Graddol and Swann 1988, Crowley 1989). In fact, it takes up the invitations of Graddol and Swann to join the debate on "the problem that variability in discourse meaning poses for those professionally concerned with language and education."

 

Full Text / Texto Completo