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Volume 13

CICLOS CREATIVOS EN LA POESÍA DE JAMES JOYCE

Jose Antonio ALVAREZ AMOROS
Universidad de Alicante

This essay attempts to distinguish between two considerably different creative impulses within Joyce's poetry that give rise to his book Chamber Music (1907) and Pomes Penyeach (1927). We analyse the former as a conscious and youthful effort on Joyce's part to make his name as a poet. Hence, his care for style, contrived versification, purity of diction, and impersonality under the welcome influence of the Elizabethan collections of lyrical verse, Shakespeare's dramatic work, and the biblical Song of Songs. After twenty years of struggle and some bitter disappointments, Joyce's poetical mood altered noticeably. Pomes Penyeach is not the result of an intent purpose to compose a systematic book, but rather a collection of occasional poems directly derived from his experience. His formal rigour also relaxed, and personal confession replaced stylistic aloofness. In conclusion, both books seem to be poles apart, save for a common denominator: the stubborn intensity with which they incorporate material borrowed from Shakespeare, the Bible, Dante, Nashe, and others. 

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THE ROLE OF EPISTEMIC MODALITY IN ENGLISH POLITENESS STRATEGIES

Marta CARRETERO
Universidad Complutense

The number of recent linguistics works on politeness has given evidence that this feature accounts for the way language is used to a greater extent than it would seem at first sight. This paper will prove the pervasive influence of politeness on epistemic modality, that is, the kind of modality which concerns judgements about the truth of the propositional content of an utterance. I shall adopt Brown and Levinson's (1987) approach to politeness strategies in terms of 'face', 'positive politeness'and 'negative politeness' -notions which will be made clear in the paper. The most obvious . conclusions drawn from this analysis are 1) that expressions of uncertainly are used as politeness strategies both in directives (to soften the speaker's imposition on the hearer), and in statements (to avoid full commitment to the truth of the proposition); and 2) that expressions which emphasize the speaker's certainty about the truth of the proposition tend to highlight the speaker's concern about the hearer's wishes or interests. Nevertheless, this analysis does not exclude other frequent patterns of the use of epistemic expressions as politeness devices, such as the cases of apologies, answers to invitations, and contradictions.

 

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REFUNCTIONALISING THE PAST: SALMAN RUSHDIE'S RE-WRITING OF THE EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY NOVELISTIC CONVENTIONS IN MIDNIGHT'S CHILDREN

Luis DE JUAN HATCHARD

Universidad de Zaragoza

Salmon Rushdie's novel Midnight's Children consciously "works" with the conventions used by eighteenth-century writers of fictional autobiographies, such as Defoe, giving them new life and a parodic function. The attempt to undermine a coherent, stable view of the self and of society is paralleled by the attempt to undermine the conventions which the literary works belonging to that culture are based upon. In this way, Rushdie has superbly shown how the heavy burden of tradition can be used to the writer's own benefit.

 

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A VISION OF HELL IN ANCRENE WISSE AND SAWLES WARDE

Ana Maria HORNERO CORISCO

Universidad de Zaragoza

The aim of this paper is to bring attention to an aspect shared by two of the works which constitute the Katherine group : both try to persuade the reader to choose the right path leading to salvation by presenting, each one in its own style, a moving and convincing picture of hell. Imagery, alliteration and witty devices are at its best in these descriptions, making of these passages the most vivid throughout the pages of Ancrene Wisse and Sawles Warde .

 

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ESTUDIO EXPERIMENTAL SOBRE EL EFECTO DE TRES COMPONENTES DE CONOCIMIENTO PREVIO EN LA LECTURA DE TEXTOS INGLESES POR ESTUDIANTES DE INGLES COMO LENGUA NO NATIVA

Ana Cristina LAHUERTA MARTINEZ

Universidad de Oviedo

Research in native (English) and nonnative (English as a second and a foreign language) reading comprehension has shown that the ability to understand texts is based not only on the comprehender's linguistic knowledge, but also on general knowledge of the world and the extent to which that knowledge is activated during processing.

Separate components of background knowledge which have been identified in the literature are: (1) prior knowledge in the content area of the text (familiar versus novel); (2) prior knowledge that the text is about a particular content area (context versus no context); and (3) degree to which the lexical items in the text reveal the content area (transparent versus opaque).

This paper reports a study which shows the individual and interactive effects of these three separate variables on the reading comprehension of nonnative readers of English and the quantity and quality (familiarity, context and transparency) of the reproductions which depend on the language used for the reproductions, making half the students write their summaries in their native language (Spanish) and the other half in the nonnative language (English), and comparing the results.

Results indicate that two of the three components of background knowledge (transparency and context) play a significant role in reading, understanding and recalling a text, both in English and in Spanish, but show as well that the language (English or Spanish) in which the reproductions are executed conditions the quantity of information reproduced.

These findings are discussed in relation to schema theoretical views of reading as an interactive process between the text and the reader, and in relation to their implications for reading pedagogy.

 

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HOW TO PROVIDE FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR WITH TYPOLOGICAL-DIACHRONIC ADEQUACY

 

Javier MARTIN ARISTA

Universidad de Zaragoza

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the theory of Functional Grammar as stated by Dik (1979 and 1989) can be provided with Typological-Diachronic Adequacy. The reason why this new concept is coined is that, in spite of the fact that one of the main concerns of Functional Grammar is how to achieve typological adequacy (more than eighty languages -most of which are not Indo-European- have been successfully discussed from the point of view of FG), this theoretical framework still lacks a detailed discussion of the relationship between Diachrony and Typology.

This paper revises critically the standards of adequacy proposed by Transformational Grammar and compares them with the ones put forward in the realm of Functional Grammar. In doing so, we concentrate on the specifications for Descriptive Adequacy and pay special attention to these specifications in FG. Then, after revising the constraints imposed on the power of FG , we define and explain the new concept which is proposed here: Typological-Diachronic Adequacy. Afterwards, we go on to discuss how to provide Dik's Funtional Grammar with Typological-Diachronic Adequacy and, finally, we answer the question whether or not new constraints upon the descriptive power of the theory arise.

 

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READING WALLACE STEVENS IN PLATO'S LIGHT

Beatriz PENAS IBANEZ

Universidad de Zaragoza

Even though Plato and Aristotle hold different standpoints on the matter of mimesis, both authors have laid the foundation stone for a never-ending discussion on the problem of representation which this paper will retake and respectfully use for the sake of illuminating Wallace Stevens's texts. It is my assumption in this article that Stevens shares with Plato a certain view of the worlds of fact and fiction which is not to be severed from the related concept of mimesis which sustains it. In this they both diverge from the paths of realism as opened by Aristotle's philosophical writings.

 

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'I AM THE ANDROGYNE': REFLECTIONS ON GENDER AND LANGUAGE IN THE POETRY OF SYLVIA PLATH, ANNE SEXTON AND ADRIENNE RICH

Marta PEREZ NOVALES
Universidad de Barcelona

In this essay, some lines from Adrienne Rich's "The Stranger" serve as the starting point for an outline of the standard approaches to women's language in contemporary Anglo-American and French feminism. The work of three representative American female poets -Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton and Adrienne Rich- is considered, in order to illustrate the theoretical issues discussed in the first part of the essay. A conclusion follows, in which androgyny is propounded as a useful concept in characterising contemporary women's poetry.

 

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METODOLOGIA SEMANTICA DE ANALISIS DE TEXTOS LITERARIOS

Francisco Javier TORRES RIBELLES Universidad de Alicante

Taking into account the hypothesis that the concerns of the author of a linguistic text can be reached through stylistic features, the article claims that a semantic study of the lexical level of a text may lead to the thought underlying it. After defining the nuclear and relational units necessary in the analysis, the essay goes on to suggest a practical methodology with three main stages as a way to elicit the author's concerns: the arrangement of semantic fields, the examination of semantically related units in a disposition of syntagmatic contiguity, and the classification of deviations from the linguistic system.

 

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REVIEW

Text - Culture - Reception: Cross Cultural Aspects of English Studies.
Ed. Rüdiger Ahrens and Heinz Antor, 1992
by Susana Onega

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