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Volume 35: Language and Linguistics
Article

LA TRADUCCIÓN DE LAS EXPRESIONES MILITARES ESTANDARIZADAS EN LAS PELÍCULAS DEL GÉNERO BÉLICO

Rosario Gordo Peleato

When the average Spanish audience watches a dubbed war or military-content film, they are seldom aware of the lack of content synchrony often to be found in dubbed military jargon. This article focuses on the audiovisual translation of five different kinds of formulaic military expressions: standardized military expressions correctly translated according to their professional use, ‘pseudo-military’ standardized expressions, formulaic military expressions wrongly translated according to their professional use, the translation of ‘radio language’, and finally the translation of expressions of ‘military courtesy’. This research follows Relvance Theory (Sperber and Wison 1986, 1995) and specially Gutt’s (1991, 2000) investigation of translation phenomena from a relevance-theoretical perspective. Our findings are that although many military fomulaic expressions have been incorrectly translated —with respect to their professional use— the audiovisual translation of formulaic military expressions can be considered valid as long as the surface characteristics of both expressions (source and target) are similar, and the military connotations of the Spanish dubbed expressions sound ‘military enough’ to activate in the Spanish audience their encyclopedic knowledge on this particular issue. In such cases the audiovisual translation is based on a comparison of interpretations and not on the classical reproduction of words.

Key words: contextual effects, processing effort, communicative clues, audiovisual translation, formulaic military expressions.

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Article

SOME LEXICAL COLLOCATIONAL PATTERNS IN LATE MIDDLE ENGLISH LEGAL TEXTS

Luis Iglesias-Rábade

The purpose of this study is to attempt to scrutinize the weight of collocations in legal late Middle English, and to show how they either specialized in this technical area or slipped into common speech. My analysis of the collocational framework in late Middle English legal texts tries to follow a lexical description based on the analysis of ‘collocation’ and ‘set’ as counterparts of ‘structure’ and ‘system’ in grammatical analysis, emphasizing the collocational structure rather than the rules that operate within the set.

Two corpora were designed: a non-Technical Corpus was drafted from a body of non-technical English texts of late Middle English which has been activated as a corpus of reference. In like manner, a minor body of the legal texts of the same period has been built to compare it with the reference corpus. Wordsmith Tools have been used to draft word lists and keyword lists of the two corpora. Collocations have been retrieved and filtered out applying Church and Hanks’s Mutual Information.

The most important conclusion is that most of the collocational types detected in the legal corpus in the six categories covered by this study hardly occur in the common corpus.

Key words: collocations, legal English, Late Middle English.

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Article

TRANSLATING COLLOQUIAL IDIOMS/METAPHORS IN THE CATCHER IN THE RYE: A COMPARISON OF METAPHORICAL MEANING RETENTION IN THE SPANISH AND CATALAN TEXTS

Michael O’Mara

The use of colloquial idioms is one of the most unique and defining aspects of the idiolect of Holden Caulfield in The Catcher in the Rye. This research attempts to determine which of the two translations, Spanish and Catalan, retains more figurative/metaphorical meaning in their representations of such idioms. Our results would seem to suggest that the Catalan translation retains more figurative meaning. This translation employs on significantly more occasions lexicalized structures expressing similar metaphorical meaning, though differing in form while the Spanish translation, on significantly more occasions paraphrases or explains the idioms in question. This paper presents new findings as, to our knowledge, no studies have been carried out comparing the Spanish and Catalan texts in terms of figurative/metaphorical meaning retention in their representations of Holden Caulfield's colloquial idioms.

Key words: translation, colloquial idioms/metaphors, The Catcher in the Rye, Spanish, Catalan.

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Article

THERE IS MORE TO BEING A SCOTSMAN THAN PUTTING ON A KILT AND TRILLING YOUR /r/s. A STUDY OF LINGUISTIC CREDIBILITY IN THE HOLLYWOOD MOVIE BRA VEHEART.

Jan Pedersen

This article investigates the linguistic credibility of the Hollywood movie Braveheart (1995). After first discussing the producers’ choice of rejecting the reality of historically correct language use, in favour of transposing modern day socioliguistic realities, a phonetic analysis of the leading actor’s (Mel Gibson’s) attempts at a Standard Scottish English accent (SSE) is carried out. The analysis is mainly carried out at a phonemc level, where some stereotypically Scottish consonants and vowel sounds are analyzed. However, the focus of the analysis is on how well the actor has managed to imitate the Scottish Vowel Length Rule (or Aitken’s law). The result of the analysis is that Gibson has made quite an effort at imitating an SSE accent, and even though he could perhaps not be mistaken for a Scotsman by a native SSE speaker, his efforts would probably be enough for the American (and international) viewers who are the primary audience of the film. It could be said that Mel Gibson is aiming for a more nuanced accent than just a farcical stereotype of SSE. Mel Gibson must have found that there is more to being a Scotsman than putting on a kilt and trilling your /r/s.

Key words: Standard Scottish English, Scottish Vowel Length Rule (SVLR), linguistic credibility, film studies, dialect coaching.

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Article

MONIKER:ETYMOLOGY AND LEXICOGRAPHICAL HISTORY

William Sayers

Popular language presents special difficulties for the lexicographer and etymologist, professional and amateur. Moniker ‘nickname, alias’ has found numerous explanations, none convincing. The term is traced to Old Irish ainm ‘name’, subsequently adopted, through well established patterns for encryption, into Shelta, the language of the Irish travelers. Its spread in North America and Australia may have been furthered by the itinerant life-styles of men seeking employment.

Key words: moniker, Irish travelers, Shelta, popular language.

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Review

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES: AN ADVANCED RESOURCE BOOK

Ken Hyland
New York: Routledge, 2006

(by María Isabel Herrando Rodrigo. University of Zaragoza)

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