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Miscelánea

 

A Journal of English and American Studies

 
Vol. 21 (2000)

 

Language and Linguistics 

 

 Articles / Artículos

 

María Heliodora Cuenca Villarín
Análisis crítico de la isocronía acentual en inglés

 

Marisa Díez Arroyo
Some Reflexions on the Study of Idioms and Consequences for L2 Teaching
Paula López Rúa
1984: Una interpretación sociolingüística

Javier E. Díaz Vera

 Prolegomena to the Development of an Inventory Synsem Features after the Old English Verb
Javier Rivas
The Position of Subject Clauses in the History of English
María José Luzón Marco
The Role of Text Structure in Encoding Idelology and Individual Perspective

Enrique Lafuente Millán

The Use of Pragmatic Politeness Theory in the Interpretation of Hemingway's "Hills Are Like White Elephants"

 

Ana María Rojo López

 ¿Qué se entiende por esquema en la Semántica de Esquemas?

 

Cristina Suárez Gómez

 That/Zero Variation in Private Letters and Drama (1420-1710): A Corpus-Based Approach

 

 Isabel Negro Alousque

 Polysemy in the Semantic Field of Movement in the English Language 

 

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Reviews / Reseñas

 
Antonio Gil e Carrasco y Leo Hickey (eds.)
(by Rosa Lorés. University of Zaragoza)

 

H. Olbertz, K. Hengeveld and J. Sánchez García (eds.)
(by Isabel negro. E.O.I. de Getafe (Madrid)

 

 
 

 

 

Abstracts / Resúmenes

Análisis crítico de la isocronía acentual en inglés

María Heliodora Cuenca Villarín

En este artículo se lleva a cabo una revisión de la isocronía acentual en inglés por medio del análisis de muestras orales de prosa leída y habla espontánea. Con el objeto de determinar qué factores pueden ejercer una influencia en la duración del pie, se han aplicado correlaciones entre ésta y otras variables (posición prepausal/ no prepausal, número de segmentos en el pie y número de sílabas en el pie). El número de segmentos en el pie demostró ser el factor más significativo para la duración del pie en inglés en ambas muestras. A pesar de que la duración del pie mostró un incremento lineal con el número de sílabas en habla espontánea, llegó a apreciarse cierto efecto rítmico de isocronía acentual en prosa leída. Este comportamiento ambiguo quedó igualmente de manifiesto en las líneas de regresión trazadas. Nuestros resultados señalan la necesidad de adoptar otros criterios fonéticos y fonológicos, así como la importancia del estilo de habla o registro en la clasificación rítmica del inglés y demás lenguas en general.


Key words: inglés, fonética, ritmo, isocronía, acentual, registro.

Full Text / Texto completo

  


 

Some Reflexions on the Study of Idioms and Consequences for L2 Teaching

Marisa Díez Arroyo

This paper focuses on the importance of a particular manifestation of figurative language: the idiomatic phrase. Its purpose is to analyse fixed expressions, the difficulties they pose and the main preoccupations shown by theoreticians. At the same time, the study offers a comparison of idioms in L1 with the circumstances which surround L2 learning, together with an exploration of how the emerging differences affect L2 idiom teaching. The investigation has been conducted along the lines of an interdisciplinary methodology; thus, a conscious effort has been made to combine the linguistic and the psycholinguistic viewpoints, implemented with the analysis of Proficiency level coursebooks, in the hope that this helps us to gain a better understanding of the nature, processing and teachability/learnability of these phrases.

Key words:  idiom comprehension, idiom processing, idiom transparency, Cognitive Semantics, L2 teaching

 Full Text / Texto completo

 


1984: Una interpretación sociolingüística

Paula López Rúa

El presente artículo analiza la utopía lingüística propuesta por Orwell en la obra Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), así como las conexiones que se establecen entre las condiciones lingüísticas y las circunstancias políticas, sociales y psicológicas descritas en la novela. Tras una introducción en la que se expone el marco sociopolítico en donde se encuadra la situación lingüística que se vive en la obra, el estudio se centra en el análisis comparativo de las dos lenguas utilizadas, el Oldspeak y el Newspeak, teniendo en cuenta sus características más relevantes, su estatus, el tipo de hablantes que las utilizan, sus variedades y sus funciones respectivas. El resultado de dicho análisis pone en evidencia que ambas lenguas (Oldspeak y Newspeak) son instrumentos de incalculable valor para manipular y esclavizar social, política y psicológicamente a sus hablantes; en otras palabras, el Newspeak representa simplemente un calculado paso adelante en el proceso iniciado y aún continuado por el Oldspeak. De este modo, el auténtico mérito del Oldspeak no es otro que el de realizar la misma función de manera tan sutil que, en un primer momento, el lector sólo es consciente de la evidente manipulación ejercida a través del Newspeak. A la luz del análisis efectuado, el artículo concluye con una reflexión sobre hasta qué punto sería factible la transferencia al mundo real de la ficción lingüística recreada por el autor.

Key words: determinismo, diglosia, eufemismo, manipulación, sociolingüística.


Full Text / Texto completo

 


Prolegomena to the Development of an Inventory Synsem Features after the Old English Verb
Javier E. Díaz Vera

Through the detailed analysis of the meaning definitions of different semantic sets of old English verbs and of their complementation patterns, I will propose a preliminary reconstruction of a basic set of synsem features, i.e. syntactic and semantic parameters which operate throughout the lexicon in the various areas of meaning. These features are divided into three basic types: obligatory, optional and contextual. Through the addition of a morphological component, I will propose some possible applications of Faber and Mairal's (1988) semantic-syntactic model to the analysis of the Anglo-Saxon vocabulary.
 
Key words:  Semantic Syntax, FLM lexicon, lexical derivation, causation, case, impersonality, pragmatics.

Full Text / Texto completo


The Position of Subject Clauses in the History of English

Javier Rivas

In English, subject clauses can occur either preverbally (in subject initial position) or postverbally (in final position). In order to account for these structures, linguistic theory has presented two major hypotheses: extraposition and intraposition. All through the history of English, the criterion of frequency seems to support the hypothesis of intraposition, since preverbal subject clauses are not found in OE and are a very marginal type in both the ME and eModE periods. The aim of this paper is to account for the factors which favour the occurrence of preverbal subject clauses by examining the evidence attested in the earlier periods of the English language as well as presenting new data concerning the 18th century. The general tendency is for clauses of this type to convey low informational load, sometimes even acting as cohesive links between paragraphs. Other conditioning factors are the text-type and the principle of end-weight.

Key words: subject clause, extraposition, intraposition, informational load, end-weight principle

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The Role of Text Structure in Encoding Idelology and Individual Perspective

María José Luzón Marco

Although any aspect of discourse can be ideologically significant, research on the relation between discourse and ideology has generally focused on the ideological investment of lexis and grammar. This paper analyses the ideological significance of the structure of the text. The role of text structure in perpetuating existing power relations is examined and described in terms of naturalisation and manipulation. Naturalisation of discourse structure refers to the fact that a structure associated with a specific social group is considered to be universal and thus the ideology which invests it is not regarded as ideology, but as common sense. Manipulation is concerned with the fact that, when encoding an argument, the writer considers the reader's expectations regarding the structure of the text in order to articulate the different elements and organise the discourse in a specific way, which reflects the ideological position from which the text is constructed.


Key words: critical discourse analysis, ideology, text structure, genre, schemata.

Full Text / Texto Completo  


The Use of Pragmatic Politeness Theory in the Interpretation of Hemingway's "Hills Are Like White Elephants"

Enrique Lafuente Millán

In the interpretation of a literary text, specially if the information granted by the author is insufficient, reinterpretation by means of inferences is necessary. The reader's previous background knowledge will often position him/ her in his/ her interpretation and so the text is open to subjective rendering. If we accept that literary dialogue is another form of social communication, Pragmatic Theory can be of help when it comes to studying texts like "Hills like White Elephants", where the words uttered by the characters hold the key to the meaning of the story. In this article, I will mainly use Brown and Levinson's politeness theory to analyze the strategies used by the two interactants in an attempt to sketch a profile of the motivations underlying their linguistic behaviour and to provide a less arbitrary interpretation of the text.

Key words: pragmatic politeness, fictional dialogue, interpretation, gender, negotiation

 

¿Qué se entiende por esquema en la Semántica de Esquemas?

Ana María Rojo López

En ámbitos como la inteligencia artificial, la psicología cognitiva y la lingüística cognitiva, la creciente adopción de modelos de comprensión basados en estructuras interactivas de conocimiento ha generado una cierta proliferación de etiquetas utilizadas para designar a dichas estructuras (por ejemplo, schemata, schema, frame, script, scenario, etc). De entre todas ellas, las más generales para referirse a estas estructuras de conocimiento parecen ser 'frame' y 'schema' en inglés, y 'esquema' en español. Como resultado, el término 'frame' ha sido utilizado de manera diferente por un amplio número de autores. Este trabajo intenta aclarar, en la medida de lo posible, la confusión terminológica, definiendo en mayor profundidad la noción de 'frame' ('esquema') y analizando su papel en la teoría sobre el significado conocida con el nombre de 'Frame Semantics.'

Key words: Semántica de Esquemas, Semántica de Esquemas y Escenas, Marcos, Lingüística Cognitiva


 

 


That/Zero Variation in Private Letters and Drama (1420-1710): A Corpus-Based Approach

Cristina Suárez Gómez

This paper offers a description of the distribution of the complementisers that and zero in two informal registers of the language, namely, private letters and drama. The analysed texts date from the last period of Middle English and the whole of Early Middle English as represented in the computerised Helsinki Corpus of English Texts. In the first section the complement clauses and the complementisers found in the selected texts are analysed to discover their particular contexts of distribution. The second section, in turn, examines possible factors, both linguistic and extralinguistic, which may influence, and even condition, the choice of the complementiser.

Key words: complementiser, complement clause, colloquial register, gender, dtyle.


 
 

Polysemy in the Semantic Field of Movement in the English Language

Isabel Negro Alousque

In this paper we will attempt to demonstrate that the lexicon is not neatly divided through the analysis of the semantic field of MOVEMENT in the English language. We will first describe the model of lexical description that we have followed, the Functional-Lexematic Model (Martín Mingorance, 1984), which consists of three levels of analysis: the paradigmatic, syntagmatic and cognitive axes. Then we will examine the double/ multiple membership of MOVEMENT verbs within their semantic field (intrafield membership) and across the lexicon (interfield membership). Intrafield membership is determined by three factors: focalization of a meaning component, genus of the lexeme, and metaphorical extension of the lexical unit. Interfield membership is accounted for by metaphorical processes.

Key words: semantic domain, levels of focalization, semantic parameters, metaphorical processes, intrafield and interfield membership.

Full Text / Texto Completo